Téphroline Extract from Tephrosia Purpurea Plant
A b s t r a c t
T. purpurea whole plant extract (TPWPE) was evaluated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities. Antioxidant activity was measured using ABTS and FRAP methods, anti-inflammatory activity was measured by Diene-conjugate and â-glucuronidase assay. In vitro XO inhibitory activity was measured by using cow milk xanthine oxidase enzyme. The average antioxidant activity of TPWPE (1-2 μg/mL) in the reacting system revealed significant activity viz; 42.2 (ABTS) and 36.5 (FRAP) percent. The anti-inflammatory activities reveled, 45.40 and 70.50 percent inhibition. The result for XO inhibitory activity by plant extracts reveled, 95.5 % inhibition to that, off control (allopurinol) 92 % inhibition. The kinetic parameters of XO inhibition, revealed noncompetitive mode of inhibition, where, Km and Vmax of TPWPE extracts (25 to 100
μg/mL)) were, 0.25 mM/mL and 0.040, 0.036, 0.032 and 0.030 (μg/min) while for positive control Km and Vmax is 0.30 mM/mL and 0.045 (μg/min) respectively. Results suggest that, TPWPE can be exploited against diseases associated, with free radical formation and xanthine oxidase activity; further by isolation and structural elucidation of active phytochemicals from TPWPE.
Tephrosia purpurea L, (Family: Leguminosae) is a pantropical, polymorphic, branched, perennial herb; found throughout the Indian subcontinent and popularly known as “Sarapunkha” in Sanskrit and ‘Purple Tephrosia’ in English. The plant used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic, antipyretic, anticancer, and antiulcer agent in addition to its usefulness in treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress, and inflammation.
The herb gives a stimulant action on the liver, also act as an appetizer and digestant. T. purpurea is very useful in digestive disorders, anorexia, flatulence, abdominal pain, tumors, hemorrhoids, worms, liver and spleen disorders. Free radicals nothing but the reactive oxygen species, which includes hydroxyl, peroxyl, super oxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, and various lipid peroxides. The lipid peroxides are capable of reacting with membrane lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, various metabolic enzymes, and small molecules of living systems.
Free radicals play an important role in the initiation and progression of various diseases such as; atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, aging, respiratory diseases, cancer, and gout. Antioxidants are molecules having capacity of preventing or slowing the oxidation of molecules.
Oxidation reaction transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent and produces free radicals thereby causing damage to cells. However most of the cells contain a complex network of antioxidant metabolites and enzymes that work together to prevent oxidative damage to cellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Antioxidants either remove or prevent these reactive species before they can damage vital cellular components of the cell or tissues. Inflammation is fundamental protective response or a local response to living mammalian tissue injury. This phenomenon develops due to the interaction of the free radicals like ROS and cellular components, resulting in cellular damage, and tissue injury.
Gout develops due to the deposition of uric acid in the form of urate monohydrate crystals in the synovial joints during purine catabolism by xanthine oxidase (XO). XO catalyses the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid with concomitant production of hydrogen peroxides and superoxide anions as byproducts; which leads to the oxidative stress in cell and development of gout in human beings. Recently, the most important reported biological properties of secondary metabolites are due to their electron transfer capacity, free radical scavenging, chelating abilities, oxidase inhibitors, and anti-inflammatory activities.
The previous researcher reported that, the plant contains flavonoids, chalcones, and alkaloids as bioactive constitutes. Depending up on this facts, the study is aimed to evaluate the effect of TPWPE as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and xanthine oxidase inhibitor, which is mainly involved in formation of uric acid; leading to free radical induced damage and gout.
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